Beatriz Navarro Ramirez

Viroids and viroid diseases

Viroids are the smallest infectious agents known so far. Consisting of a small circular RNA, they may cause severe diseases to economically relevant crops (tomato, potato, peach, citrus, etc.). In contrast to viruses, viroids do not code for any protein. Therefore, the infectious process relies on the presence of structural domains in the viroid RNAs allowing them to interact directly with host factors. This feature makes viroids useful implements for getting deeper insights into the structural-functional relationships of both foreign and host RNAs.

In our laboratory, we develop multidisciplinary researches – also based on high-throughput sequencing technologies – addressed to further characterize molecular bases underlying plant-viroid interaction, with major interest in unveiling the role of RNA silencing in viroid trafficking and pathogenesis.

From an applied point of view, we focus on molecular and biological characterization viroids causing diseases in fruit trees, grapevine, vegetables and ornamental plants, on development of fast and reliable detection methods, and on the identification of control strategies of viroid diseases.


  • 2013 - Cytopathic effects incited by viroid RNAs and putative underlying mechanisms - Di Serio, F., De Stradis, A., Delgado, S., Flores, R. & Navarro Ramirez B. - Frontiers in plant science, 1-13
  • 2012 - Occurrence of Hop Stunt Viroid in Mulberry (Morus alba) in Lebanon and Italy - Elbeaino T.; Abou Kubaa R.; Choueiri E.; Digiaro M.; Navarro B. - Journal of phytopathology, 48-51
  • 2012 - Small RNAs containing the pathogenic determinant of a chloroplast-replicating viroid guide the degradation of a host mRNA as predicted by RNA silencing - Navarro, B., Gisel, A., Rodio, M.E., Delgado, S., Flores, R. & Di Serio, F. - Plant journal, 991-1003
  • 2012 - The role of plant viroids in diseases – new developments - Di Serio, F., Torchetti, E.M., Flores, R. & Navarro, B. - Perspectives in agriculture, veterinary science, nutrition and natural resources, 1-9
  • 2012 - A single polyprobe for detecting simultaneously eight pospiviroids infecting ornamentals and vegetables - Torchetti, E.M., Navarro, B. & Di Serio, F. - Journal of virological methods, 141-146
  • 2012 - Viroids: from genotype to phenotype just relying on RNA sequence and structural motifs - Flores, R., Serra, P., Minoia, S., Di Serio, F. & Navarro, B. - Frontiers in microbiology, 1-13
  • 2012 - Molecular characterization and taxonomy of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 7 - Jelkmann, W., Mikona, C., Turturo, C., Navarro, B., Rott, M.E., Menzel, W., Saldarelli, P., Minafra, A. & Martelli, G.P. - Archives of virology, 359-362
  • 2012 - Viroids: How to infect a host and cause disease without encoding proteins - Navarro, B., Gisel, A., Rodio, M.E., Delgado, S., Flores, R. & Di Serio, F. - Biochimie, 1474-1480
  • 2012 - First report of Chrysanthemum stunt viroid in Argyranthemum frutescens in Italy - Torchetti E.M., Navarro B., Trisciuzzi V.N., Nuccitelli L., Silletti M.R. & Di Serio F. - Journal of plant pathology, 451-454
  • 2012 - I viroidi delle colture ornamentali: emergenze fitosanitarie e misure di controllo - Di Serio, F., Torchetti, E.M. & Navarro, B. - Criticità e prospettive delle emergenze fitosanitarie , 37-49
  • 2011 - Citrus Tristeza Virus Infection Induces The Accumulation Of Viral Small Rnas (21–24-nt) Mapping Preferentially At The 3’-terminal Region Of The Genomic Rna And Affects The Host Small Rna Profile - Ruiz-ruiz S. (1), Navarro Ramirez B., Gisel A.,peÑa L (2)• Navarro L. (2), Moreno P. (2), Di Serio F. & •flores R. (1) - Plant Molecular Biology (05842J0), volume 75 pag. 607-619
  • 2011 - Viroids And Viroid Diseases Of Plants - Flores R. (1), Di Serio F., Navarro Ramirez B., Duran-vila N. (2) & Owens R.a. (3) - Studies In Viral Ecology, Volume One: Microbial And Botanical Host Systems , Publisher: Edited by Christon J. Hurst , John Wiley & Sons, I
  • 2011 - Somatic Embryogenesis Efficiently Eliminates Viroid Infections From Grapevines - Gambino G., Navarro Ramirez B. , Vallania R., Gribaudo I. & Di Serio F. - European Journal Of Plant Pathology (10845J0), volume 130 pag. 511-519
  • 2010 - Detection And Identification Of Viroids Damaging Potato And Fruit Trees - Di Serio F. & Navarro Ramirez B. - Élelmiszerbiztonság Megítélési Módszerei Ii (Methods to evaluate food safety. II), Publisher: Editor: Arpad Ambrus. Publishing: Edison House Hol
  • 2009 - Multiple Viroid Infections In Iranian Grapevines - Hajizadeh M. (1), Navarro Ramirez, B. Bashir N.s.(1) & Di Serio F. - Journal Of Plant Pathology (00077NN), Publisher: 92(4)